4.07.2006

El teatro de Albert Camus

Albert Camus (1913-1960) es indiscutiblemente uno de los referentes intelectuales del siglo XX. Sus méritos académicos son indiscutibles: el Premio Nobel que ganó con tan solo 44 años lo atestigua. Sin embargo, Camus es mucho más que eso. Hay en él una honradez fuera de la común, una honestidad que chocaba con el resto de intelectuales de su época, que como él dijo habían situado su sofá en el sentido de la historia. Como pequeño homenaje trataré de resumir aquí su producción teatral, que a pesar de ser relativamente corta -tan sólo 4 obras, sin tener en cuenta las adaptaciones- no por ello resulta menos interesante; de hecho, creo que a través de su teatro podremos hacernos una idea de la mayor parte de la trayectoria de Camus, exceptuando el último periodo (desgraciadamente su última obra, Los justos, data del año 1949, 11 años antes de la muerte del autor en un accidente de tráfico).

  • Calígula (1938): Dejemos que el propio Camus resuma su obra: "Calígula, hasta entonces un emperador relativamente aceptable, advierte a partir de la muerte de Drusila, su hermana y su mujer, que el mundo no es satisfactorio. Desde entonces, obsesionado con lo imposible y envenenado por el desprecio y el horror, trata a través del asesinato y la perversión sistemática de todos los valores, de ejercer la libertad". Pura filosofía del absurdo; como pueden ver, se trata de la obra que más íntimamente ligada está a el primer periodo de la trayectoria intelectual de Camus, que podriamos llamar etapa del absurdo, cuya base filosófica se encuentra en El mito de Sísifo. En ella podemos ver un hombre enfermo física y moralmente, que nos retrae a la tuberculosis que afectó al autor. Personalmente siempre he visto a Camus como un hombre enfermo de nihilismo, que conoce su enfermedad y trata de huir de ella, a través de la filosofía, de la comunión con la humanidad o de Dios.
  • El malentendido (1944): Recurramos a Camus de nuevo; "un hijo que quiere ser reconocido sin haber dicho su nombre y que es asesinado por su madre y su hermana a causa de un malentendido; este es el argumento de la obra". Obra de transición entre el primer periodo y el segundo, el absurdo que envuelve la historia es evidente. Tragedia de lenguaje clásico, y no por ello menos contemporánea; tenemos a una nihilista, a una mujer cansada y a una mujer que ama. Dios está por allí, pero no oye muy bien y cuando se le pide ayuda, se niega. A destacar el personaje de Marta, primera "Verhovenski" de Camus, donde ya podemos entrever la crítica al "el fin justifica los medios" que tantas complicaciones le traería al filósofo francés; además, tanto este personaje como la obra en general rompe con los esquemas de personaje femenino que se cumplen en las otras obras.
  • El estado de sitio (1948): Mezcla de diferentes géneros, El estado de sitio está a medio camino entre la comedia crítica a lo Darío Fo y la tragedia clásica. El argumento es muy similar al de su novela La peste; a la ciudad de Cádiz llega una epidemia, representada por La Peste y su secretaria, La Muerte. Continúan las críticas a la violencia revolucionaria que ya habían empezado con el personaje de Tarrou y que finalmente cristalizarían en El hombre rebelde, provocando la ya célebre disputa Camus-Sartre. Es probablemente en esta obra donde más claramente se puede ver el ideal de paraiso de Camus, muy ligado al mar Mediterráneo.
  • Los justos (1949): Última obra del autor francés, y en mi opinión su obra maestra. Aquí la idea camusiana de los límites de la rebelión, que dos años después aparecería en El hombre rebelde, aparece con una pureza brutal. Iván Kaliayev es un terrorista que lucha por un mundo mejor; sin embargo, ante la posibilidad de matar a niños es incapaz de asesinar al Gran Duque. Por ello discute con Stepan Fedorov, que simboliza el terrorista nihilista; aquí un extracto que creo revelador:
    STEPAN (Violentamente): No hay límites. La verdad es que vosotros no creéis en la revolución. (Todos se levantan, menos YANEK) Vosotros no creéis. Si creyerais totalmente, completamente, en ella, sí estuvierais seguros de que con nuestros sacrificios y nuestras victorias llegaremos a construir una Rusia liberada del despotismo, una tierra de libertad que acabará por cubrir el mundo entero, si no dudarais de que entonces el hombre, liberado de sus amos y de sus prejuicios alzará al cielo la cara de los verdaderos dioses, ¿qué pesaría la muerte de dos niños? Admitiríais que os asisten todos los derechos, todos, ¿me oís? Y si esta muerte os detiene es porque no tenéis seguridad de estar en vuestro derecho. No creéis en la revolución. (Silencio. KALIAYEV se levanta.)
    KALIAYEV: Stepan, me avergüenzo de mí y sin embargo no dejaré que sigas. Acepté matar para abatir el despotismo. Pero detrás de lo que dices veo anunciarse un despotismo que, si alguna vez se instala, hará de mí un asesino cuando trato de ser un justiciero.
    En la segunda ocasión, Kaliayev no duda y el Gran Duque muere. Sentenciado a muerte, da una última lección. "Si no muriera, entonces sí sería un asesino".Se trata sin duda de la obra en la que más se deja notar la influencia de Dostoyevski, especialmente la de la novela Los demonios (que posteriormente Camus adaptaría al teatro).

Además de estas cuatro obras propias, Camus adaptó Los espíritus, de Pierre de Larivey (1953); La devoción de la Cruz, de Calderón de la Barca (1953); Un caso clínico, de Dino Buzzati (1955); Réquiem por una monja, de William Faulkner (1956); El caballero de Olmedo, de Lope de Vega (1957) y Los Demonios, de Dostoyevski (1959).

Estoy convencido de que no será la última vez en la que Albert aparezca por este blog.

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